Posted by: asianshock | February 17, 2011

Jerusalem 10W 2.17.11

We continued today with the Jewish revolt against the Roman oppressors. The Romans ruled from 63 BCE to 614 CE. It began when Herod the Great died in 4 BC. As an aside, because Jesus is mentioned in the Bible during the reign of Herod, Jesus must have been born before 0 CE. Herod’s kingdom was divided between 3 sons, Archelaus, Herod Antipas, and Herod Philip. Archelaus became the ethnarch of Judea but was an ineffective ruler and qwas recalled to Rome and exiled in 6 CE. Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Perea and Galilee but was also a crappy ruler and ruledf from 4 BCE to 39 CE. Both of these brothers minted coins without graven images because they ruled over a Jewish population and did not want to offend them. Herod Philip became the tetarch of Iturea and Trochonitis. He ruled from 4BCE to 34 CE when he died. He had graven images on his coins because he was removed from the Jews. All three brothers were replaced by Roman procurators.
One important Roman governor, and the only one mentioned in the Gospel is Pontias Pilate who ruled from 26-36/7 CE. He provoked the Jews and tried Jesus and ordered his execution. However, he was such a bad ruler that Rome recalled him. There is archaeological evidence for his existence.
The Roman governors did not know about Jewish customs and traditions, whcih caused a natural uprising to occur. During the summer of 66 CE, Jewish militants held open revolts against Rome. Some were hoping for two Messiahs to appear and save them; one from the Davidic line, and one from the line of Aaron. The revolters also minted their own coin as propaganda, and to show their sense of nationalism. In 67 CE, Rome appointsVes[aroam to conque Galilee, Transjordan. This was also when Josephus was captured. He escaped with his life though because he proclaimed to be a prophet and told Vesparian that he will be emperor. Then the current Roman emperor dies, and Vesparian becomes the new emperor. Vesparian’s son Titus is put in charge of leading the destruction of Jerusalem. Finally, in 70 CE, on the 9th of Ab, Jerusalem falls and the second Temple is destroyed. Coincidentally, this is the same day as when the first Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians. This started another period of cognitive dissonance for the Jews.
Hadrian rebuilds a temple for Jupiter on the spot in 135 CE. There was a second revolt, called the Bar-Kokhba revolt but was not as effective as the first one. A guy named Bar-Kokhba proclaimed himself as Messiah and tried to influence the Jews to rise up and fight. He even printed his own coins, but because he sucked at writing Hebrew, there were many misspellings. Moreover, he was poor, so instead to making new coins, he just striked his coins over Roman coins. In a way, this was to his benefit because he was saving money and striking out pagan symbols at the same time.
The Bar-Kokhba revolt did not turn out well, and Hadrian severely punished the Jews. He rebuilt Jerusalem and called it Aelia Capitolina. Jews were banned from the city except for the 9th of Ab when they are allowed to enter the city and mourn for the loss they suffered at the ahnds of the Romans. During this time, multiple synagogues began surfacing as an alternative to the Temple. IN this way, Jews can worship without having a centralized Temple.

Man those Romans were jerks



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